Panpsychism and Thermodynamics, Explored

T.A. Erikson,

R/E Unltd, (SdogV), Chicago, IL. (E-mail sdog1@sbcgloal.net)

Received: 24 August 2009; Published: December 2009

http://network.nature.com/groups/transcience/forum/topics/5378

Abstract

Roger Penrose's *The Road to Reality*^{1} has a final sentence, "Perhaps what we mainly need is some subtle change in perspective-- something that we all have missed….". This is motivation for revisiting panpsychism, an ancient theory that suggests all things have awareness, sense, and/or consciousness. With recent papers reporting increased attention to this subject, can a physicalist approach be fruitful? . Light requires mass to validate its existence. Mass requires time to prove likewise. Do these requirements suggest a basic "need" for such creatures? This article explores concepts that may exist between light and mass, life and gravity.

Introduction

As a work in progress, this paper suggests a different way to look at the three variables; mass (as kg), distance (as m) and time (as sec). There may be a difference in the treatment of energy, as it pertains to elements of "force" that (1) causes mass movement through a distance in time, i.e. "acceleration" and (2) involves (evolves?) a distance growth of mass that exists in time, i.e. "stimulation*". Certainly, the surface area becomes significant as the boundary that exists between the surface of mass and its surroundings reaches the particle size of a molecule, an atom, an electron, a proton, or in combinations as a neutron. We also have the "massless" photon that also appears as a wave ** or** particle. If panpsychism exists it must reside in the blurry region of tiny particles where area is influential.

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* "Stimulation", kg/sec^{2 }, viz.units of surface tension, coined by Diane Richards in 1998, (deceased on 2/13/04)

Panpsychism

Panpsychism is a murky business. Encyclopedic overviews^{2, 3 }suggest that, with no identifiable or measurable property, it is a subject of interest only to philosophers. Yet all matter responds accordingly to an environmental influence. For example, upon contacting a hot surface, a liquid may simply physically change to vapor whereas life forms have the physical response to move away (e.g., one's finger). The former is considered inanimate having an intrinsic programmed response, whereas the latter, being animate, develops from extrinsic factors of its environment. Consciousness, as opposed to a simple system response, emerges from exposures that lead to learning, control, and intelligence. Although life is claimed^{4 }defunct, it would seem that motion and growth could require a closer look.

Processes of anabolism for growth and catabolism for motion maintain metabolic equilibrium in life forms. Plant to animal cycles of energy production to energy utilization is a good natural example of synergy. Photons of sunlight with no mass, electrons with mass and charge, and carbon dioxide interact in plants to produce anabolic growth and oxygen, while animals use this oxygen (and food) to produce catabolic motion and carbon dioxide. This and other such notions^{5} were presented at several Chicago Section AAPT meetings and explored in the Physics Forum on the Internet.

Thermodynamic Modeling

Nearly 50 years ago I was introduced to some new thermodynamic concepts^{6 }by my adviser, Ralph J. Tykodi, now Professor Emeritus at Southeastern Massachusetts Technological Institute (SMTI). He has authored two books^{7, 8} plus many technical publications to introduce new, as yet not accepted, ideas (He is better known for chess publications). In the preface ^{7}, his words, "...This book does for the class of non-equilibrium situations involving stationary states and steady-rate processes what any good book on ordinary thermodynamics does for equilibrium situations:..." sums his view. Here, he applies "...only the concepts of heat, work, energy, and concepts derived therefrom", to various steady-rate processes, something seen as akin to life and a way to ultimately define panpsychism.

On page 12 ^{7} Dr. Tykodi introduces Eq. (2.12), a "thermodynamic resistance" as an "entropy production term" divided by the *square* of a "suitably chosen rate parameter with respect to time." Whereas Newton's "acceleration" for motion defines a force to mass ratio, "stimulation" defines a force to distance ratio. With energy as a force times a distance, then by analogy and/or symmetry, "something?" involves a *squared* mass term, which is a parallel to gravity. Where light velocity limits motion to c, growth and decay may be governed by a mass per unit time term.

Motion force, or F (nt), that displaces mass, M (kg), some distance, d (m), causes acceleration, (m /sec^{2 }), and requires energy, E, as F x d, i.e. kg-m^{2}/sec** ^{2} **or joules. A growth or decay force, F* (Nt?), that replaces a distance in space, d* (m) with some mass, M* (kg) causes stimulation, (kg/sec

However, by symmetry with F x d, what can be F* x M*, i.e., (m-kg/sec^{2} )(kg)? Might this property identify a need or basis for mass growth, decay, and or lifetime, a k a panpsychistic controls? Note that its reciprocal times the 4^{th} power of c times M* has the units of the gravity constant.

Conclusions

The first and second law of thermodynamics involves intensive and extensive variables, respectively temperature/pressure and volume/entropy. These define state functions. Rossini's idea of 1971, referred to by Thims ^{10 }(p. 681), suggests that "freedom" and "security" determine equilibrium, as represented by enthalpy, temperature, and entropy values. To me, light has this freedom with unlimited time at maximum velocity, while mass seeks security by it's intrinsic growth/decay and metabolism for a *limited* time. Electromagnetic forces govern photons of light. Mass movement is governed by Newton's mechanical force. But the surface boundary between mass and light, where all kinds of unknown forces may act, is difficult to discern. This is particularly true for electrons of point-like character and photons with a mass of zero.

Pippard's treatment of vapor droplets ^{11 }(p. 153) shows that available free energy maximizes at a critical radius, r_{c,} defined by the ratio of twice surface tension,g
, to the product of density, r
, and an energy density difference, D
E (as c^{ 2 });

r_{c } = 2 g
/ (r
D
E), (I)

having units (kg/sec^{2)}/{(kg/m^{3 })( m^{2 }/sec^{2 })} X
meters

Therein lies a source of panpsychism, a critical radius of any mass where a maximum positive available free energy exists. There, the radius may increase or decrease, for a process such as evolution to proceed. Laser studies indicate extremely short times for atomic and molecular bond activity.

Such significance may to be associated with the seconds of "lifetimes" reported^{5} for electrons (~10^{-44}), protons (~10^{-41}), and Planck mass (~10^{ 0,} i.e. "1") with the function, K M^{2 } c^{2}. "K" is the inverse of a reported^{9} metabolic rate range of 0.3 to 9 watts/kg (i.e. ~"1") for 1648 species of life, shown in Figure 1. The range of mass is nearly 20 orders of magnitude. Do electrons have stability? , Do photons desire recognition?

"Force" is considered here as an unusual combination of the products of motion, m/sec, and growth, kg/sec., ignoring "charge" as far as possible. Momentum, is considered as products of mass and velocity while acceleration of motion is m/sec^{2} and "stimulation" of growth is kg/sec^{2}. Now Planck's constant is usually considered as an energy-time product. Can it also represent a growth-area product (kg/sec) m^{2}? For the surface areas of assumed "point" particles such as electrons (and photons?), stimulation as " kg/sec^{2} " would be enormous. Radiation expressed by the Stefan-Boltzman law as kg/sec^{3 }multiplied by time then implies a source for stimulation.

Young's "Essays" ^{12} on "jerk" and a chart, Figure 2 on degrees of freedom, are of influence here. Recently, this work-in-progress includes; Thomas's *What is Reality?*^{13}, Kelly's *Technium*^{14 }, Kafatos's *The Conscious Universe*^{15} , and others^{16-19}, with over 100 collected sources on computer files still under consideration. Rucker, an admitted panpsychist/hylozoist, in his presentation^{20}, *Everything is Life*, uses "gnarly" to describe the needs of energy as mass, light, life, and/or gravity in Physics. In short, the photon-time-surface involvement of small particles, where Planck's quanta prevail might be a source for panpsychism.

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Note added in proof:

As a work in progress to introduce present status, emphasis is on dimensional units; kg, m, and sec, But kg/ sec as growth and kg/sec^{2 }as stimulation are not usual in Physics. Mass and time are ubiquitous. Biophysics will require "something missed"!

Rigden's book on *Hydrogen*^{21}* *lists six experimental measurements that identify a dimensionless fine structure constant, a
, as 0.00729735308, *with no theory or model to calculate it*. He quotes Purcell's "With respect to a
we are in the rather humiliating position of people who have to wrap a string around a cylinder to determine p
." Geometrical considerations^{22} show surface-to-volume (S/V) as (S^{3}/V^{2}) to be dimensionless, which for a sphere is 113 and for a regular tetrahedron is 374. At least *four* non-collinear points are required to define the "space" occupied by mass, therefore in Euclidean geometry the sphere and the regular tetrahedron represent the least-to-most surface activity per unit volume (ignoring the more complicated irregular tetrahedron). The fact that the ratio (113/374), equal to 0.302, when raised to the 4^{th} power gives 0.00802 (of same order as a
) seems more than coincidental.

Pursuing this idea, a simple experiment using a constant chosen clay volume of 43.8 cm^{3} was performed. Molded as a sphere, (S/V)_{Sp} , and as ~oblate by pressing to a flat disc (S/V)_{Ob} , and ~prolate by rolling into a long rod, (S/V)_{Pr } spheroids it resulted in more than 2 orders of magnitude for the dimensionless series, spheres to oblate to prolate spheroidal shapes. Further, the ratio of minor to major axiis of particular spheroid approximations can be shown, relative to a sphere, to produce 0.2923, which raised to the 4^{th} power is 0.007297, a 4-significant figure determination of a
.

A simple hierarchy of mass is; particles-atoms-molecules-smallclusters-bigclusters. Without charge or photons in the mix at the atomic level, protons and electrons involve mass ratios of ~2000. Energy-volume ratio, E/V, is pressure, P, while energy-mass ratio, E/M, is c^{2}. These, as a ratio, produce density, r
, such that P=r
c^{2}. Imposing a liquid-vapor model^{23} requires equilibrium of pressures, such that nucleus to electron densities are of order 10^{16} to 1 A proton of ~2000 electron masses might be initially held together by gravity at the critical radius of Eq. ( I ). There would be tremendous pressure and energy potential to eject 1/2000th of it's mass. Are the proton and electron *within *the hydrogen atom always the same ones or do they resonate? In reference to an electron's mass and charge in the absence of measured mass and charge, Rigden^{21} (p. 168) asks, "In the words of the trade, what are the *bare* mass and *bare* charge?"

Being independent of time, light has freedom, while mass has a time dependent security that is governed by a surface boundary with it's environment. The need of mass for more time requires "growth" and involves light, charge, and gravity. Returning to the subject of panpsychism and thermodynamics, the dimensionless ratio, (S/V)_{Sp} , (for the sphere), represents a state *of least* interaction with it's surrounding environment, thus the most stable geometrical structure. Using this as a reference state, any departure to another structural state incurs instability. The ratio of these "states" represents a compromise between mass and time. "Consciousness" may be presumed to be the recognition of a physical need for growth to larger, and more irregular structures, for longer duration of existence. For those wishing clarification, more detail, or wish to comment on the several aspects of this work-in-progress, you may e-mail the author at sdog1@sbcglobal.net.

**FIGURE 1**- Courtesy of reference (9)

**FIGURE 2-** Courtesy of reference (12) http://www.arthuryoung.com/lightintolife.html

**REFERENCES-
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(3) More, T., Panpsychism, __The Catholic Encyclopedia__, Volume XI, New York, Robert Appelton, (1911) (http://newadvent.org/cathen/11446a.htm)

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(10) Thims, L*., Human Chemistry VII, Vol. II*, LuLu Press, Morrisville, NC (2007)

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http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2009/04/ordained-becomi.php

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(21 Rigden, J., *HYDROGEN, The Essential Element*, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA (2002)

(22) Erikson, T., "The Geometry of Structure", AAS/APT Mtg. San Francisco Jan. 17. (1989)

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